Case Study

Story Board







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Framing the Issue for Pakistan’s Communication Strategy : the Conceptual Dimensions


The Key Elements of the Communications Strategy


            Macro Policy Linkages


            Gender Dimensions


           The Vicious Cycle of Poverty and Education Deprivation


Aims and Objectives of Communication Strategy


Target Groups




Primary Group (Family, CDLs and Children of well-off Schools)


Secondary Group (Potential Employers of Child Domestic Labour)


Influencing Group (government/ policy makers/teachers)


Behaviour Change Objectives


Family and Children


Students and Teachers


Potential Employers of Child Domestic Labour


Government/ Policy Makers


Mobilizing the Target Groups






Communication Channels








Interactive Theatre


Making Media a Partner


Tools for Analysis


Monitoring Coverage


           Collecting and analysing press clippings


Monitoring radio and television


Developing a Media List


Developing Materials that Interest Journalists


News Releases


Fact Sheets


Experts Lists and Media Resources




Media & Communication Plan


Regional Strategy Documents: ROSA


Child Domestic Labour (CDL) refers to situations where children perform domestic tasks, not in their own home but in the home of a third party or ‘employer’ under exploitative circumstances. These children work behind closed doors in the privacy of people’s homes, this lack of visibility greatly increases the potential for exploitation and abuse. Once a child is inside an employer’s home, s/he is effectively hidden from view; employers have total control over their lives. This is a high-risk situation for the child. Violence and abuse (of many different kinds) can take place behind closed doors, unnoticed by the outside world. This is in contravention of the rights of the child as enunciated in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and violation of the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. More recently, child domestic work is considered in many parts of the world as a worst form of child labour, defined by the ILO Convention 182. The Government of Pakistan ratified Convention 182, in 2001.  This binds the government to tackle the issue of child labour by revising legislations and developing appropriate policies and plans.

2-Framing the Issue for Pakistan’s Communication Strategy : the Conceptual Dimensions 

In Pakistan, Child labour is  a serious child rights as well as a development issue. Child domestic labour is emerging as a more prevalent form of child labor and is insidious due to its invisibility.  Children continue to be a source of cheap labour for families across the country. This so called mutually beneficial arrangement has given way to commercialization of children’s work and a more exploitative form of servitude. In a country with 30% population living below poverty line and a poor public sector education system CDL is bound to increase unless immediate steps are taken to curtail the problem. CDL is seen both in elite and non-elite homes and hence its growing pervasiveness. Domestic Child Labour falling under the specific conditions described in ILO Convention No.182 is considered within the Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL). However in Pakistan it has not been identified as a worst form in the list of 29 hazardous types of WFCL (annex). This is mainly due to the attitude of social acceptance of this form of child labour whereby employers consider and perceive it as an act of benevolence, though no relief including  education opportunities and recreation are offered to these children. This social acceptance towards CDL as a ‘benevolent’ act to counteract ‘poverty’ compounds the problems and makes interventions difficult to implement and also to sustain.  Moreover adult domestic labor is substituted with CDL which is far more manageable and definitely cheaper.

A powerful communication strategy for CDL in Pakistan must be conceived in absolute terms of violations, which have a propensity to move from low intensity abuse to high intensity violence.  This is represented through the diagram below:

CDL can be envisaged as a continuum of mild to complete exploitation which multiplies in violence as it merges with child trafficking; child bondage and the extreme faces of worst forms of child labor (WFCL).  This categorisation is dependent upon hours of work from part time under supervision of parents/siblings to full time without any supervision/support and without any relief from work 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. Some have suggested that all categories above 3 should be called Exploitative  

These 8 faces of CDL denote a progressive increase in various forms of violence against children. This is linked to violence against children at multiple levels: at homes (parents); institutions (schools), community and in the workplace (including domestics)

The Communication Strategy must conceive Child Domestic Labor as  the Myriad Forms of Violence Against Children

Its challenge is to Make the Invisible Visible and introduce a notion of Public Shame for this category of CHILD LABOR which needs to be immediately stopped in a time bound period.

The vulnerability of children in domestic labor is at multiple levels as conceptualized in the global framework of Violence Against Children. This calls for an URGENT for launching of a nation wide  Protection and Elimination Campaign against CDL.

3-The Key Elements of the Communications Strategy:

In view of the above Child Domestic Labour situation, the need is to bring an urgent and required attitudinal, behaviour, social and legal changes. For this purpose, communication is one of the most effective methods. However, no comprehensive communication strategy and IEC materials are available in the country that address the issues of CDL in an effective manner. In this regard, the UNICEF Regional strategy “Communication Strategy on Child Domestic Labour”  will be used for adaptation based upon CRC, its relevant articles, ILO conventions C182 and C138 and the Constitution of Pakistan that guarantees the protection of children’s rights as well as prohibits hazardous employment below the age of 14. (Annex: Regional Strategy Documents: ROSA)

A set of IEC materials will facilitate the advocacy efforts of ILO-IPEC CDL project being carried out through seminars and social debates with the media, parliamentarians, the governments and the civil society. This communication strategy and corresponding IEC materials will further the cause by sensitizing the employers and parents, facilitate the Ministry of Social Welfare, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Women Development and other partners including the civil society to address the issues of CDL in Pakistan.

In general, the strategy has to be relevant to the challenge of advocating for attitudinal and behavioural change in a variety of ways:

ensuring  political commitment to the CRC; ILO Convention 182 and ratification of ILO Convention 138,
increasing awareness and understanding of the phenomenon of child domestic labour in relation to education and vocational skills
finding of ways to integrate sectoral programming so that all child rights and needs can be holistically addressed, ensuring protection which will lead to the elimination of child domestic labour as a national priority.  

3.1Macro Policy Linkages:

The strategy has to be relevant and influential in relation to macro policy contexts with regard to national policy formulation and decisions at the macro level to combat child domestic labour. This would include the National Poverty Reduction Strategy; National Plan of Action (NPA) for Child Rights, NPA for the Elimination of Child Labor, NPA for EFA,  NPA for CEDAW and NPA for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). 

3.2Gender Dimensions:

Furthermore, the strategy as well as the materials would need to focus on the gender dimension of  House Hold labour, on girls who are the majority in child domestic labour in Pakistan, and emphasise their education by directing communication messages to parents, heads of families, community leaders, and provide a valuable benefit that is relevant to all of them. The Girl Child vulnerability is to be highlighted as this does not just undermine the rights of the child but also the targets for EFA, CEDAW and MDGs. The issue of girls must be projected powerfully as their vulnerability takes multiple forms including trafficking, bondage and child sexual abuse. 

While it is imperative to focus on girls the Communication Strategy campaign must portray boys as well since research reveals that in NWFP and Blochistan CDLs are dived between boys and girls.

3.3The Vicious Cycle of Poverty and Educational Deprivation:

Since Poverty is the main underlying cause of millions of children going hungry, missing out on schooling or being forced into child labour, another focus of the strategy will be to develop messages on how child labour perpetuates poverty and how poverty reduction begins with the education and protection of children. Poor quality of schools, high dropout and repetition rates,  low achievement levels and negative /severe attitudes of teachers keeps poor families away from sending children to schools even when government policies for fee waivers and free textbooks are in place.  

It is also critical that the strategy must  accentuate modes of communication for and by young people by encouraging CHILD TO CHILD approaches.

4- Aims and Objectives of the Communication Strategy
  • Adapt the messages from the regional strategy and conceptualize and design new thematic messages
  • Conceptualize and design communication channels to convey the messages.
  • Identify agents of change and sources for information dissemination.

  • Develop concepts for a number of tools to raise awareness and prompt behavioural change of employers and parents
  • Encompass national advocacy, community mobilization and evidence-driven social and behaviour change actions
  • Develop communication materials (posters, leaflets, booklets, calendar etc.) based on the above strategy.
5- Target Groups
5.1 Segmentation

The term segmentation means dividing and organizing a larger group into smaller groups of people who have similar communication-related needs, preferences and characteristics. This strategy makes an effort to segment group to achieve most appropriate and effective ways to communicate with these groups.

5.2 Primary Group (Family, CDLs and Children of well-off Schools)

  • Family & CDLs

    The primary group for a communication strategy are the people who are at risk or at whom the development intervention is targeted. One exception to this is children, in which case their parents are addressed as the primary group but since decisions are made for them by their parents; the parents and children are the primary target groups of this communication strategy.

  • Children of well-off schools/ teachers

    The second sub-group of primary target group consist of students and teachers of schools so they act as catalysts in this campaign.  

5.3 Secondary Group (Potential Employers of Child Domestic Labour)

Potential employers have been identified as the most important secondary group. This is because employers can play a crucial role in hiring and in most cases exploiting children for domestic labour and their attitude often considered as exploitation.

The employers must further be segmented to target: 

a. Elite homes and 
b. Non-elite middle and lower middle class homes
This would cover both urban and rural areas. 

5.4 Influential Group (government/ policy makers/teachers)

Influential groups are the influential people, who are involved in formulating legislations and their enforcement. The goal is to mobilize these groups to influence the policy in favour of the elimination of Child Domestic labour. Following influential audiences have been identified for the Communication strategy.

Policy makers
Political representatives at the Local Union Council Level; District Level; Provincial MPAs; National MNAs and Senators
Nazims/ Naib Nazims
Councilors/ Lady councilors
Opinion leaders; including Imam Masjid; Church Leaders;    
Regional leaders
Media (Print & Electronic)
Human Rights Activists
Government officials
District Government  Authorities

6- Behaviour Change Objectives

As part of this strategy following behaviour change objectives have been identified. Message for different communication initiatives will be based on these objectives.

6.1- Family and Children

Domestic child labour is physically, mentally and emotionally injurious to children.. it is to be seen as Violence Against Children (VAC)
Convince them that child domestic labour is not an option for dealing with family poverty
Ensure adult responsibility for children’s well-being, and that adult employment is both desirable and possible
Convince them that education is the best option for children up to the minimum working age
Convince parents and children that Education is a good investment and that education is a best dowry (for the girl child) and will not only improve the marital prospectus of the girl child; it will provide her with social security as well.

6.2- Students and Teachers

Briefing of school children and teachers on the issue of child right
Brainstorming with students for the protection and rights of of CDL
Definition of  the role of teachers in the elimination of CDL
Development of better relationships between teachers parents, children and   community for liaison for the elimination of CDL

6.3- Potential Employers of Child Domestic Workers

Convince potential employers that employing a child below the minimum working age in domestic labour is not acceptable
Convince employers that, where a child above the minimum working age, or an adult, is employed in domestic work, that they should enjoy all their rights as workers and where applicable their rights as children
Ensuring that they realize that child domestic labour is harmful to children and it can damage children’s health and well being and hamper their development.
Make them realize that all working children have same rights as other children have.

6.4- Government/ Policy Makers

Encourage them to:

Recognize child domestic labour as a child rights issue as well as a child labour issue
Recognize that child domestic labour as hazardous, potentially a WFCL, and  adult domestic work as a legitimate economic activity
Review laws on domestic work at the private domain, including setting of minimum working age for domestic work
Support school- and family-based information initiatives to uphold children’s rights, including the right not to be exploited in CDL

7- Mobilizing the Target Groups

Mobilization is a process through which community stakeholders become aware of a problem, identify the problem as a high priority for community action, and decide on  steps to take action. It starts with problem assessment and analysis at the community level and moves to action on chosen courses. It is defined as process of involving and motivating concerned  stake holders to organize and take action for a common purpose.

Social mobilization requires that wide community participation is necessary for members to gain ownership so innovations would not be seen as extremely imposed. Community mobilization is one of the main approaches to bringing about behavioural change. Social mobilization differs from other communication approaches that are largely based on appeals to individuals. Interpersonal channels stimulated by social mobilization allow the wide diffusion of concepts and innovations and increasing demand.

Mobilization of communities should focus on building confidence, trust and respect, increasing the knowledge base, and enabling community members to participate and become more proactive with regard to their own behaviour.

7.1- The Strategies

Families and Children
Organising interactive sessions with parents of Child Domestic Workers
Implementing community-based pressure campaigns through community watch groups, NGOs, religious/local structures and groups
Holding community information sessions including video animations
Carrying out posters and card campaign through public places, esp. health clinics, community notice boards etc.
Reinforcing work through media information – local media including local newspapers, radio etc.
Mobilizing  of youth media
Disseminating of messages on CDL through youth outlets (clinics, clubs, streets, mosques)
Students and Teachers
Organising interactive sessions with students and teacher
Carrying out poster and card campaign on different national and international event/days
 Implementing school-based information via teachers
Holding student, parents and community information sessions including video animations
Drama/ Theatre performance to highlight the issue
Holding community information sessions including video animations


Potential Employers of Child Domestic Labour

Organising media campaign promoting zero tolerance of child domestic labour (including women’s media, professional outlets)
Organising media campaign with secondary message relating to adult domestic work (including women’s media, professional magazines)
Implementing community-based pressure campaign (through community child rights groups, women’s groups, youth groups and others)
Influence through children of potential employers’ families, via school-based mobilization activities
Organising information campaign through professional associations, academic institutions, employers’ associations and workers’ groups

 Government/ Policy Makers

Developing an updated information pack with fact sheets
Mobilizing lobbying ministries of labour, education, youth and family, women, social welfare (engaging partners in support)
Organising internal organization briefing and sharing of new materials to ‘tune in’ staff to importance/positioning of this issue
Organising  briefing of NGOs and other civil society partners and distribution of updated information pack to ‘tune in’ to this issue, including rights-based approach
Organising briefing of media and distribution of media-specific information pack, including ‘interview’ with UNICEF spokesperson/senior staff/personality (at regional level?)

7.2- Tools

Seminars/workshops/Baithaks (Informal meeting)
Video animations
Posters, leaflets and booklet
Message-focused information brochures
Fact Sheets with case studies
Recent research/resources
Media-specific information pack
Messages/ Storylines for Radio
Teacher-specific information kit

8- Communication Channels

A multi-channel approach has a better chance of changing behaviour than a single channel approach. In addition, a multi-channel approach, especially an approach that uses mass media, can achieve objectives more quickly. Using several channels enables the communication activities to reach more people and to reach people in different environments with more frequency. The combination of multi-channels also offers a synergy to the campaign and gives it more impact. It is important for the primary group as well as the secondary and influencing groups, who will most likely be exposed to these same messages. This exposure will, in turn, help to reinforce in them the necessity of supporting the campaign.

The channel mix should be the one that steadily conveys a message to build recall over a long period of time. Messages delivered through these channels must be consistent and reinforce each other.

8.1- Television

Television is one of the most effective media of our times. Several studies have shown the impact of television on everyday lives of the viewers. Television has proved extremely effective as a channel for conveying development messages. Unfortunately the penetration of television is not wide spread in the rural areas as well as urban. However, television is quite a popular medium of communication.
Television is mainly used for entertainment while cable services have become quite popular in the urban centres where cable channels are the main source of entertainment. ITA can make use of television in two ways.
(a): By liaising with the producers of the television programmes that often comment on economic and social issues and by making efforts to convince them to put child domestic labour on their agenda.
(b): By working with local cable operators to ensure that telecast video animation prepared for the project.

8.2- Radio

Popularity of radio varies in the urban, suburban and rural areas. After losing its glory in the urban areas of the country, it is staging a comeback in the form of FM stations. However, Radio is a popular medium of information and entertainment in the rural areas. Radio provides an effective and cost effective way to reach the target audiences. Some programmes of Radio Lahore are particularly popular with the target audiences. An effort will be made to use these programmes to convey the message. For this purpose the project staff will meet and keep in touch with the presenters of these programmes.

The government has issued licenses for FM radio stations all over the country. The communication staff of the project will keep a close watch on such a development in the area and will try to make the best use of a communication opportunity if it appears in the form of an FM radio in the country.
8.3- Newspapers

Newspaper is an effective source of communication in urban centres. It has different categories like magazine or periodical containing public news, reports of events, and commentaries. The Project team will hold forums, seminars and workshop with media personnel to highlight the issue of child domestic labour. The project team will coordinate with editors of newspapers for an effective media campaign in the form of features, articles and dissemination of information.
Another approach is to offer training that improves media professional’s understanding of child domestic labour. Such sessions can vary in length from a single day to three days. Planning for such workshops should involve journalists themselves to ensure that the workshop not only reflects program interests but also meets journalists' needs. Such workshops usually yield immediate stories. Even more important, they yield long-term benefits by establishing better communication between journalists and NGOs. ITA will arrange for at least three training opportunities for local and national journalists. 

8.4- Interactive Theatre

Street drama has been a popular folk art in the subcontinent for centuries. Traditionally street theatres were used to dramatise mythical and folk romances. Lately, this medium has been modified to address social issues. A strong case can be made for street theatres as a medium of communicating information about sensitive issues. Plays can be adopted to be culturally appropriate and context sensitive. Theatre provides a public and non-intrusive forum for communication. In addition, theatre is an ideal medium to reach target groups and facilitate immediate feedback.

Pre-play entertainment can be used to gather the crowd, followed by a street play. The performance is followed by an interactive session in which audience engage in a discussion about the change in the situation portrayed in the play.
The project staff will organize two interactive theatre groups who will work on voluntary basis with the project staff and perform in areas with high concentration of child domestic labour. Project staff will facilitate them in logistics. Theatrical groups in Lahore will be approached to train these volunteers.

An effort would be made to involve children in this activity as much as possible. Children from Agahi Centres as well as from other schools may be recruited as actors to perform the plays prepared by the groups.

9- Making Media a Partner

The basic responsibilities of a news media relations unit would be to:
Develop and maintain good working relations with journalists;
Determine the interests and needs of the news media;
Produce news releases, feature stories, opinion pieces, newsletter copy, and other newsworthy information for radio, television, and print media;
Prepare fact sheets, experts lists, and other materials for journalists;
Arrange and assist with news conferences, site visits, interviews, and other contacts with journalists.
The project would help journalists to identify newsworthy topics, obtain access to sources, and prepare interesting stories. These activities benefit both the journalists and the CDLs by generating more coverage and more accurate reporting. Working effectively with the news media is largely an exercise in seeking and supplying useful, factual, and timely information that journalists will consider and use as the basis for their stories. They are most likely to use information that offers a good story that is relevant, is easy to understand, and arrives at the right time.

9.1- Tools for Analysis

Learning as much as possible about the interests of the news media will help to work with them effectively. Three activities provide the basic information: monitoring stories and broadcasts; developing a media list; and obtaining information about news media outlets.

9.2- Monitoring Coverage

The best way to learn about the interests of journalists is to read, watch, and listen to what they report.

9.3- Collecting and analysing press clippings.

By selectively clipping the major newspapers regularly over a period of months, files on child domestic labour, basic and technical education and other issues of interest can be determined.
Analysing these clippings can reveal who covers child domestic labour, what they are saying, when and where such coverage occurs, and even why it occurs. The files containing clipping of the newspapers will be maintained by the communication project staff and updated on a daily basis.

9.4- Monitoring radio and television

To the extent possible, communication project staff will monitor influential  popular programs that often comment on economic and social issues and programs that alliance wants to air its material so that one can learn more about their formats and interests.

9.5- Developing a Media List

A comprehensive, up-to-date media list provides in a single place all of the information an organization needs to get in touch with journalists. A media list should be as complete as possible, including not only names, addresses, and phone numbers of key contacts, but also each news media outlet's circulation, language, and audience; publisher, key editors, reporters, or program directors. The communication project staff will develop and maintain such media list. These lists will be updated from time to time.

9.6- Developing Materials that Interest Journalists

To attract the attention of journalists, materials will be developed that meet their need for news and information. For example, journalists are used to getting news releases, and releases often help journalists find important stories. Most journalists also welcome such materials as fact sheets. Expert lists can also be a useful resource for journalists.

9.7- News Releases

The news release is the mainstay of media relations—the most accepted and cost-effective way to reach journalists. A news release is simply information that is prepared for the news media as a "ready-to-run" story. If a news release contains real news and is well written, editors may print it almost unchanged.

An effort will be made to build the capacity of the communication unit in preparing news releases. The unit will feed news stories to media by producing news releases.

9.8- Fact Sheets

A fact sheet provides background on the project mission and current activities. It both helps to generate coverage and helps portray the organization accurately. A fact sheet of the organization will be prepared to facilitate journalists in their work.

9.9- Experts Lists and Media Resources

Journalists work under tight deadlines. They need convenient access to facts and expert opinion. Journalists are more likely to check with credible, reliable sources if experts' names and telephone numbers are put at their fingertips. An experts list, preferably in a booklet form will be prepared that will provided contact number and addresses of experts and officials relevant to child domestic labour.

10- Annexure





Target Audience

Electronic / Broadcast
Talk Shows
Cartoons-story boards..
Children’s programs


Policy makers
Political representatives
Opinion leaders/Religious leaders
Regional Leaders
Child Domestic Labour

TV Channels

Timings (appropriate  airing time)

Campaign Duration

Airtime costs (Rs.)

GEO Entertainment

7:00 pm – 10:00 pm
5 times a day
5 days a week

2 months

6,700,000 (without discounts)


7:30 pm - 9:00 pm
3 times a day
5 days a week

2 months

(without discounts)

Hum TV

7:00 pm – 10:00 pm
3 times a day
5 days a week

2 months

(with 30% government discounts)

Approximate Budget


2 months cost
1 month cost


Other Electronic Mediums

Other Mediums


Campaign Duration

Airtime costs  (Rs.)Approximate

Ads in Cinemas

160 cinemas all over Pakistan, shown 3 times a day

2 months


Ads on Cable TV


1 - 2 months


Viewing at Public spots

Food street, Daewoo Buses, Railway stations (Platform & within train), Airports (Terminals and within planes)

1 - 2 months


TV programs – Talk shows, debate topics, awareness raising issues, documentary stories

50 Minutes (Geo), Documentary


Cost varies depending on strategy

TV Scrolls and break bumpers with CDL slogan and logo


1 week activity

Cost varies depending on strategy



Target Audience

Radio Advertising

Opinion leaders
Child Domestic Labour
Regional Leaders

Radio Channels

Type of activity

Timings (appropriate  airing time)

Campaign Duration

Airtime costs  (Rs.)

FM 100

10 ads a day of 15 seconds each

Throughout the day

1 month


FM 99

10 ads a day of 15 seconds each

Throughout the day

2 months


FM 89

Sponsored day & ads

Throughout the day

Sponsored Day


Total Budget




(without discounts)




Quantity / Number of

Costs (Rs.)

Animated ads for TV

30 seconds each



Content for Radio

15 seconds each



Documentary stories (Short film) –
Behind the world of Child Domestic labor

10-15 minute production



Total cost







Costs  (Rs.)

TV advertising

2 months


Radio Advertising

2 months


Other electronic mediums

2 months


Content production costs



Total estimated cost

For a 1-2 month Electronic Awareness Campaign